Adler, M. D., Dolan, P. and Kavetsos, G. (2017) "Would you choose to be happy? [15] It included at least 500 observations per day and, importantly, asked respondents a similar set of questions as does the Gallup World Poll. India, World’s largest democracy, ranks 133 among 156 countries in World Happiness Index 2018 while the immediate neighbor Pakistan (75th) is the happiest country among the SAARC Nations. The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. (2018), Krekel et al. Tradeoffs between happiness and the other dimensions of life in a large population survey," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 139, 60-73. Clark, A. E., Doyle, O., and Stancanelli, E. (forthcoming) "The Impact of Terrorism on Well-being: Evidence from the Boston Marathon Bombing," Economic Journal. Metcalfe, R., Powdthavee, N., and Dolan, P. (2011) "Destruction and Distress: Using a Quasi‐Experiment to Show the Effects of the September 11 Attacks on Mental Well‐Being in the Unit-ed Kingdom," Economic Journal, 121(550), 81-103. Following Morrison, we split the sample into high-income and low-income countries in order to get a better sense for the different slopes in the relationship between city residents' happiness and their respective country average happiness. United Nations (2019), Cities – United Nations Sustainable Development Action 2015, Online: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/cities/, last accessed 12/12/2019. Our analysis is purely descriptive and cannot make causal claims about the effects of urbanisation itself on happiness. Leveraging the US Poll, we added the ten largest American cities. (eds), World Happiness Report. (2016), for example). The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. A related question asks not so much whether cities are, on average, happier places than their surrounding countries, but rather whether happiness inequality is different within cities as compared to countries. Tost, H., Champagne, F. A., and Meyer-Lindenberg, A. [18] To do so, we turn again – in line with the methodology applied in the World Happiness Reports – to the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll, which include items on positive and negative affect, constructed from batteries of yes-no questions that ask respondents about their emotional experiences on the previous day. And there are some shocks in store. [20] Indices are then created by averaging across items, and are bound between zero and one. ↩︎, Included US cities are Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington DC. However, this decrease is driven by very strong reductions in city happiness at the very bottom of our global ranking. In what follows, we first describe the methodology behind our ranking and present our findings on cities' happiness around the world. World Happiness Analysis Clementine Chou November 3, 2017. 2016 includes 157 countries. This observation appears to corroborate Morrison’s model, which suggests such a skewed relationship for reasons that are considered in more detail in chapter 4 of this report.[24]. Der Report umfasste den Zustand des weltweit empfundenen Glücks und der Lebenszufriedenheit, die Gründe für Glück und Unglück sowie politische Folgerungen, die durch Fallstudien belegt wurden. 2. The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. Importantly, leveraging well-being survey responses is an approach that allows us to get a more holistic grip on the drivers of happiness. The underlying problem is that happiness is a difficult thing to measure. I performed Data Analysis on COVID 19 dataset by John Hopkins University and World Happiness Report and found really interesting results. [9] Rather than relying on a list of factors that researchers consider relevant, our ranking relies on city residents' self-reports of how they themselves evaluate the quality of their lives. High-income countries are considered those with a GNI per capita of $12,376 or more (World Bank, 2020). It shows that people living in developed countries are more prone to infection of the Corona Virus than people living in less developed countries. World Happiness Report Analysis. We find cities in areas that are in current or past conflict zones at the bottom in terms of positive affect. The Economist Intelligence Unit (2019), The Global Liveability Index, Online: http://www.eiu.com/topic/liveability?zid=liveability2019&utm_source=economist-daily-chart&utm_medium=link&utm_name=liveability2019, last accessed 12/12/2019. (2014), and Loschiavo (2019). (2015) "Environmental influence in the brain, human welfare and mental health," Nature: Neuroscience, 18, 1421-1431. As Figure 3.3 suggests, residents of cities are somewhat happier than the mean happiness of their respective country populations suggests. Bhutan still ranks low (95th) in the World Happiness Report. Led by Finland, the Scandinavian countries topped the charts. (2017) "In search of features that constitute an 'enriched environment' in humans: Associations between geographical properties and brain structure," Nature: Scientific Reports, 7(11920), 1-8. This pairs plot compares the importance of each of the six factors of happiness to each of the others. Whereas life evaluation is a cognitive-evaluative measure of subjective well-being that asks respondents to evaluate their lives relative to an ideal life, positive and negative affect are experiential measures that ask respondents to report on their emotional experiences on the previous day. world happiness report about 80% of these inter-country differences can be attributed to the same few variables measuring the material, social and institutional supports for a good life. (2011) ↩︎, See Graham and Lora (2009) and Rojas (2016) ↩︎, For example, see De Neve and Ward (2017), Clark et al. With urbanisation set to increase, by 2050, seven in ten people worldwide will be city dwellers. To ensure that it is appropriate to merge the data coming from different surveys, we calculated the 2014-2018 average current life evaluation score for the Gallup US Poll and the World Poll, and found them to be almost identical: 6.96 for the US Poll and 6.97 for the World Poll. This perhaps shows that people are not quite able to accurately predict their future life evaluation and the best indicator of the future is current life evaluation. The choice of cities was motivated by selecting the ten largest US cities, all of which have well over 300 observations in the US Poll. Introduction. (Note: 2017 does not have a region column, so we can create one by joining the region data from another year’s dataset by country ID and filling in any missing cells manually). (Yay for Northern Europe! The World Happiness Report 2019 has just been released. 2017 includes 155 countries. The World Happiness Report does this, making available insights garnered from the Gallup World Poll surveying some 160 countries. ↩︎, For the US cities, we use the Gallup US Poll in exactly the same way as the Gallup World Poll, with the sole exception of not including 'anger' as part of the negative affect index because it is un-available in the US Poll. (2018) ↩︎, We split our sample into low-income and high-income countries based on the World Bank's categorization of low, lower middle, upper middle, and high-income countries. Is there predictive power from these self-predicted future scores? Trust (absence of corruption) and Generosity are the least important. World Happiness Report Introduction Background Happiness ranked based on country Grouped based on 3 years: 2015, 2016, 2017 What impacts happiness Score? Which cities around the world promote a higher well-being amongst their inhabitants than others, conditional on the same development level? This analysis illustrated that the world’s happiest countries are primarily in Western Europe (especially Northern Europe), North America, and Australia & New Zealand. Since the ranking was first compiled in 2012, Scandinavian countries have dominated the top. Studying these differences about what matters most for city residents' quality of life is—besides a continuous monitoring and benchmarking of cities' happiness around the world—an important next step. Africa appears to contain the lowest overall happiness scores. Gallup Pakistan has led The Finish. Some cities have experienced significant positive changes in their citizens' happiness over the past decade: changes above 0.5 points in life evaluation, which is measured on a zero-to-ten scale, can be considered very large changes; a change of 0.5 points is approximately the change when finding gainful employment after a period of unemployment. Dushanbe (Tajikistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan) – two former Soviet republics located in Central Asia – are ranked second and fourth, respectively. (2007) "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys, 21(1), 1-24. The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. The World Bank (2020) World Bank Country and Lending Groups, Online: http://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups, last accessed 13/01/2020. Stockholm (Sweden) comes out ninth. Here, we cannot statistically distinguish it from the 45-degree line (F-test = 3.59). These are places that have seen economically difficult times recently. As can be seen in Figure 3.1, the top ten are clearly dominated by Scandinavian cities: Helsinki (Finland) and Aarhus (Denmark) are ranked first and second, Copenhagen (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), and Oslo (Norway) fifth, sixth, and seventh. We are not relying on a limited number of objective dimensions of quality of life, often defined ex-ante according to what researchers (or policy-makers) consider important. For the report, Gallup – which asks the “same questions, every time, in the same way” – asks the following question in an annual worldwide survey:“Please imagine a ladder with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. In line with the methodology of the World Happiness Reports, our main outcome is current life evaluation, obtained from the so-called Cantril ladder, which is an item asking respondents to imagine themselves on a ladder with steps numbered from zero at the bottom to ten at the top, where zero represents the worst possible and ten the best possible life. Start Power BI Desktop and feel free to sign up or click the Already have a Power BI account link below the registration form. Case study: oeCd World Happiness reporT edited by John Helliwell, richard layard and Jeffrey sachs 65409_Earth_Chapter1v2.indd 1 4/30/12 3:46 PM Casting an anchor, and continuously monitoring and benchmarking city dwellers' quality of life around the world, is also an important step towards implementing Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities. (2016), and Bertram et al. Calvin Holbrook reports on the findings of the report which ranks the happiest countries in the world to live in. If there is a strong positive linear correlation between two factors, we can say that if one factor is important in evaluating a country’s overall happiness, it is likely that the other factor is important as well. The World Happiness Report is an assessment of the state of universal happiness. The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable … According to Gallup's world happiness report of 2020 65% public of Pakistan are happy with their lives. I found chapter 5 ‘The Key Determinants of Happiness and Misery‘ to be quite interesting. In general, Economy and Family seem to the the two most important factors of happiness in these countries. I’ve settled with eyeballing the correlations. These factors then weigh more when determining overall happiness. Finland bags top spot and not only has the happiest people, but also the happiest immigrants. Sanaa in Yemen, another war-torn city, is ranked sixth, whereas Beirut in Lebanon (bordering Syria) is ranked fourth from the bottom. During the same time, the number of so-called mega cities– cities that have more than ten million inhabitants, most of which are l… Other cities in or at the fringes of the European Union that have made substantial progress (of 0.5 or more points on the zero-to-ten life evaluation scale) are Riga (Latvia), ranked 13, Belgrade (Serbia), ranked 17, Bucharest (Romania), ranked 22, and Budapest (Hungary), ranked 23. The three datasets used in this analysis are available on Kaggle. Cities are economic powerhouses: more than 80 per cent of worldwide GDP is generated within their boundaries. In sum, there have been winners and losers in terms of changes in cities' happiness over the past decade. Likewise, cities in Egypt (here Alexandria, which is ranked eighth from the bottom) are quite pessimistic places when it comes to the future, and so are cities located in Iran (Tehran, the capital, is ranked ninth and Mashhad is ranked tenth from the bottom). The strongest reduction is found in Maseru, the capital of Lesotho, which has seen current life evaluation decrease by more than two points. On average, there has been a decrease in mean city happiness over the past decade. Figure 3.1 shows the complete list of cities according to how positively their inhabitants currently evaluate their lives on average. Stutzer, A., and Frey, B. S. (2008) "Stress that Doesn't Pay: The Commuting Paradox," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110(2), 339-366. World Happiness Analysis Clementine Chou November 3, 2017. In this chapter, we provided the first-ever global ranking and analysis of cities' happiness. Chapter 2: The Distribution of World Happiness (John Helliwell, Haifang Huang, and Shun Wang) In this report we give new attention to the inequality of happiness across individuals. (2019) World Happiness Report, New York: UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Another interesting question is whether or not our global ranking of cities is determined by something different than the mean happiness of the counties in which they are located. Figure A1 in Appendix replicates Figure 3.1, but reports on expected future rather than current life evaluation. The happiest regions of the world appear to be in Europe, North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Loschiavo, D., (2019) "Big-city life (dis)satisfaction? Finland bags top spot and not only has the happiest people, but also the happiest immigrants. Resolving the urban paradox: subjective well-being, education and the big city. [19] For negative affect, we include whether respondents often experienced feeling sadness, worry, and anger (apart from the US where we do not have data on anger for 2014 onwards). ↩︎, By referring to "all citizens", SDG 11 makes an explicit reference to being inclusive, which is an important point as evidence shows that urban amenities and disamenities are of differential importance for citizens with different socio-demographic characteristics (see Eibich et al. (2017) "Happiness in the air: How does a dirty sky affect mental health and subjective well-being," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 85, 81-94, 2017. ↩︎, See, for example, White et al. Case study: bhutan 6. (2014) "The relationship between well-being and commuting revisited: Does the choice of methodology matter?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 49, 321-329. On March 20th, the world celebrates the Interna t ional Day of Happiness. Of course, this does not mean that moving into a city makes everybody happier: people living in cities differ in important observable and unobservable characteristics from their rural counterparts, which could very well explain the difference in happiness that we observe. Some really interesting features are contained in these data sets. Here’s a world map color-coded by each country’s overall happiness score in 2015. 16th annual meeting of the International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies. Somewhat surprising is the large number of Turkish city dwellers reporting low positive affect, including people living in Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir. [6] Rapid urbanisation also puts pressure on public open spaces such as parks and urban green areas, which provide space for social interaction and important ecosystem services.[7][8]. They often outperform their countries in terms of economic growth. Australia & New Zealand, North America, and Western Europe have the highest average happiness scores. Families are the nucleus of home life for most individuals, and Health also affects people on the level of individuals. I was thinking the same thing when I first stumbled upon the World Happiness Report (WHR). Arguably, this bottom-up approach gives a direct voice to the population as opposed to the more top-down approach of deciding ex-ante what ought to matter for the well-being of city residents. In fact, places two, three, and five in terms of future life evaluation are populated by San Miguelito (Panama), San Jose (Costa Rica), and Panama City (Panama), whereas places four and ten are populated by Accra (Ghana) and Freetown (Sierra Leone). How did their well-being change over time? Rojas, M. (2016) “Handbook of Happiness Research in Latin America”, Berlin: Springer. Although the top ten according to how cities' inhabitants evaluate their expected future lives feature familiar faces such as Aarhus (Denmark), Copenhagen (Denmark), and Helsinki (Finland), which rank sixth, seventh, and eighth, and which also feature in the top ten of current life evaluation (ranking second, fifth, and first, respectively), it is fascinating to see that the top ten in terms of optimistic outlook also includes new cities. Then, we analyse whether and how cities' happiness has changed during the past decade, whether there exist significant differences between cities and their countries, and whether there are substantial happiness inequalities within cities relative to countries. As is the case for the ranking of countries in this World Happiness Report, our ranking of cities' happiness around the world relies on the Gallup World Poll, an annual survey that started in 2005 and that is conducted in more than 160 countries covering 99 per cent of the world's population. The World Happiness Report was written by a group of independent experts acting in their personal capacities. For positive affect, we include whether respondents experienced enjoyment and whether they smiled or laughed a lot. The World Happiness Report is a publication of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, powered by data from the Gallup World Poll, and supported by the Ernesto Illy Foundation, illycaffè, Davines Group, Blue Chip Foundation, the William, Jeff, and Jennifer Gross Family Foundation, and Unilever’s largest ice cream brand Wall’s. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Many of them originate from Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as many regions in Africa. We’re interested in the Country and Region columns of each dataset in order to group overall happiness scores by country and world region. The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. When it comes to the worldwide top ten in terms of positive affect, we find that six out of ten cities originate from the Latin American and Caribbean region. World happiness dataset - Exploratory analysis with R; by Prakki Sai Rama Sridatta; Last updated almost 2 years ago Hide Comments (–) Share Hide Toolbars The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. For some of these places, these scores may come as a surprise, given the difficult economic situations in the countries in which these cities are located. ↩︎, See, for example Stutzer and Frey (2008), Dickerson et al. The annual release of the United Nations World Happiness Report leads to much jubilation – and flagellation – around the globe. The importance of Economy is also strongly positively correlated with those of Family and Health. Frey, B. S., Luechinger, S., and Stutzer, A. Frey, B. S., Luechinger, S., and Stutzer, A. To check this, we regress current life evaluation on life evaluation scores pre-2014 and expected life evaluation scores pre-2014. It would be interesting to see … Other cities that have experienced large positive changes in Africa are Cotonou (Benin), Dakar (Senegal), Conakry (Guinea), Niamey (Niger), and Brazzaville (Congo), which are ranked fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth in our global ranking of changes. ↩︎, We investigated whether there are systematic differences in responses to the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll surveying of the Cantril ladder. The state of World Happiness 3. Impacts Variables: Country Questions Initial Q's Related to Happiness Impact What factor is most significant in impacting a Title The main innovation in the World Happiness Report 2017 is our focus on the role of social factors in supporting happiness. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia could definitely use a lift, but overall, the world doesn’t seem to be doing too badly. Just from these boxplots, we can tell that the average happiness scores across world regions don’t change very much from 2015-2017. Besides their low economic development levels, therefore, these cities are also located in countries with high political instability, a strained security situation, and reoccurring periodic outbreaks of armed conflict. Document ‘HR17.PDF‘ is the main report. Data Analysis: World Happiness Report (Fun) 2 minute read World Happiness. [17] While life evaluation is our primary measure of subjective well-being, we also take into account well-being measures of how people experience their lives on a day-to-day basis. Analyzing the World Happiness Report dataset as Part of The EPFL Applied Machine Learning Course (Project 1). Bertram, C., and Rehdanz, K. (2015) "The role of urban green space for human well-being," Ecological Economics, 120, 139-152. Thus, when contrasting the positive agglomeration and productivity benefits of urbanisation and urban amenities with its disadvantages due to disamenities such as congestion or pollution, it seems that, on balance, city dwellers fare slightly better than the remainder of the population, at least when it comes to current life evaluation as our measure of comparison. According to Gallup's world happiness report of 2020 65% public of Pakistan are happy with their lives. Perhaps less surprising, most cities that score low on positive affect also score high on negative affect, as seen in Figure A3. The seventh World Happiness Report has just been published to coincide with International Day of Happiness on March 20, 2019. (2013), Ambrey et al. Ambrey, C., and Fleming, C. (2014b) "Public Greenspace and Life Satisfaction in Urban Australia," Urban Studies, 51(6), 1290-1321. In 2018, there were 548, and in 2030, a projected 706 cities will have at least one million inhabitants. Maracaibo and Caracas, the second largest city and the capital of Venezuela, are placed second and third from the bottom, respectively. ↩︎. Unsurprisingly, the happiest countries and world regions generally tended to be ones with strong and stable economies. Our ranking of cities' happiness does not yield fundamentally different results than existing rankings: Scandinavian cities and cities in Australia and New Zealand score high when it comes to the subjective well-being of their residents; cities in countries with histories of political instability, (civil) war, armed conflict, and recent incidences of terrorism score low. Since there is no systematic bias upwards or downwards when comparing city scores between both surveys, and especially because the Gallup US Poll score and the Gallup World Poll score are essentially identical, we merge the US Poll with the World Poll data without the need for any adjustments. I was hoping to be able to draw regression lines over each of the pair plots, but couldn’t figure out how. Comparing the top four to the bottom four countries, average incomes are 40 times higher, healthy [4] City dwellers are often younger, more educated, and more liberal than their rural counterparts. There were 371 cities with more than one million inhabitants at the turn of the century in 2000. However, this is somewhat less the case for countries at lower levels. Data import: There are three separate datasets - 2015, 2016, and 2017. (2009) "The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods: The case of terrorism," Public Choice, 138, 317-345. In other words, the difference between the least happy and the happiest person is, on average, not much different in cities than in the country at large. Morrison, P.S. Dolan, P., and Kudrna, L. (2016) "Sentimental Hedonism: Pleasure, Purpose, and Public Poli-cy," in: Vittersø, J. Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Sidharth Bhushan and Pekka Vuorenlehto for outstanding research assistance. (2018). Markus Korhonen examines how the scores were put together – and the value of measuring happiness in the first place. We can make similar boxplots for 2016 and 2017. This global difference amounts to, on average, 0.2 points on the zero-to-ten life evaluation scale. (2020). And there are some shocks in store. Even when doing a univariate regression of current life evaluation scores on expected life evaluation only, we find that it is not significant. ↩︎, Note that the 'happiness' survey item is no longer available after 2012 so that the index is comprised of 'enjoyment' and 'smile or laugh' from 2012 onwards. To answer this question, in Figure 3.2 we calculate the change in life evaluation for each city against its average life evaluation in the period 2005 to 2013. One way of testing this is to use country mean happiness scores to predict city rankings, and then to look for significant outliers. In psychology, there is a large and growing stream of literature looking at how our environment affects our brain structure and function, suggesting that more ‘enriched’ environments that are more complex and provide more stimulation facilitate brain plasticity (see Kuehn et al. (2020, forthcoming) "New Ways of Valuing Ecosystem Services: Big Data, Machine Learning, and the Value of Urban Green Spaces," in: Ruth, M. (ed), Research Agenda for Environmental Economics, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. It includes at least 1,000 observations per country per year, covering both urban and rural areas, with a tendency to oversample major cities. Dystopia, by definition, is a community or a group of people or a place that is terrifying or unwanted. The importance of cities for global development has long been recognised in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11, Sustainable Cities and Communities, which includes targets with clear relevance for citizens' life satisfaction, such as strengthening public transport systems to reduce congestion and commuting times,[10] reducing ambient air pollution,[11] and improving access to green and public open spaces[12] for all citizens. Account link below the registration form on a Cantril ladder survey loschiavo ( 2019.! Contact me still ranks low ( 95th ) in the World happiness Report together our! For example, See Dolan ( 2014 ) and Generosity are the least.! Future outlook analysis have any questions or suggestions, do not change significantly 2015-2017! Second and third from the Gallup World Poll surveying some 160 countries ten optimistic... Factors of happiness cities across the globe to much jubilation – and flagellation – around the globe score 2015... 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